Erik Erikson did not hold any Master Degrees until after he worked with the children of Sigmund Freud’s patients. With his work he is a very influential psychologist continuing to study his 8 theories of development in 1927. In which Erikson believes that all characteristics of these resourceful stages can be successfully developed over time if not mastered in the time period originally studied. To review two stages being Trust vs. Mistrust and Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (All Psych Online, 1999-2003).
It is assigned by a very informational theory from Erik Erikson that from birth to around 18 months children will either learn to trust or mistrust the growing individuals of today. While the baby is crying because she/he is hungry, sick, hot, or dirty. With the most important of the baby reaching out his/her hands for affection. It’s the caregivers job to see that this child gets the required needs met. In turn, these actions will create trust that will last a lifetime. If the child does not get these needs met the child will show a mistrust behavior or type of fear (All Psych Online, 1999-2003) . Witnessing a caretaker tease a child through birth to one year old taught the child mistrust to fellow peers. The child continues to feel intimidated when playing with toys and ends up crying/arguing with everyone who is babysitting.
Another Erikson Theory from the years of one to three states that a child will learn autonomy. At this age children will continue to explore their curiosity and try things they may not necessarily need to try. To build on their autonomy a caregiver would need to guide their amazement. If this is not done it will produce in a child to feel shame or doubt when wanting to try out new endeavors (All Psych Online, 1999-2003). The other day my two year old daughter wanted to hang on the monkey bars like her brothers were doing. Instead of telling her “no” I picked her up and talked slowly and told her to “hold on” while still supporting enough of her weight in my arms, I would guide her and teach her how to reach for the other bar until she dropped. Of course this act went on for a couple more times until her attention was focused on something other than the monkey bars. Although, the smile on her face while she was holding on to the bar with both of her small hands magnified the growth of autonomy.
1) All Psych Online. (1999-2003). A different beginning/personality synopsis. Retrieved from http://www.allpsych.com/personality/synopsis/erikson.html