Feminism theory and criticism seeks to change sexual discrimination, discover and evaluate lost and neglected literature by females, expose masculine stereotypes, and challenge male domination of literature. In reading masculine literature, women think as men―they identify with their viewpoints, accept their values, and tolerate their sexist hostility and oppression―in this manner, women become “resisting readers.” Feminism studies female’s unique creativity―images, characters, genres, styles, themes, forms, and traditions. They discover and evaluate lost literary works by women, develop feminine concepts, examine forces that shape women’s lives. Their literature ranges from psychology to politics and from biology to history.
Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar propose that nineteenth century women writers negotiated alienations in order to attain notoriety. The feminine anxiety of authorship―in its opposition to the masculine anxiety of influence―reconfigures the oedipal relationship between writers as cooperative and nurturing rather than competitive and rivals; similarly, écriture feminine transforms Jacques Lacan’s idea of the Imaginary order, a placement of primal drives, to a place of liberating bodily rhythms associated with the mother, which permeates feminine literature and poetry. The Imaginary order is prior to the Symbolic order. It is a realm of bisexual, androgynous, and polymorphous sexuality. The Symbolic order is a realm of compulsory heterosexuality that dominates patriarchal culture.
There are conflicts among women of sexual orientation, color, class, and those in the Southern and Eastern hemispheres. Black women believe white women speak for all women, even though they represent only their interests. Third world women feel silenced in social agendas, which rarely consider their needs and wants. Critics of identity politics believe―it gives priority to race or class, and will reduce people to social indicator―thereby, undermining the solidarity of the feminist movement. Those indicators challenge the notion of humanism and promote a variety of women’s literature around the world.
Leitch, Vincent B., ed. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2010.
1st. Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/theory-and-criticism-by-julie-renee.html
2nd. What is Interpretation? @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/what-is-interpretation-by-julie-renee.html
3rd. What is Literature? @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/what-is-literature.html
4th. Classical Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/classical-theory-and-criticism.html
5th. Medieval Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/medieval-theory-and-criticism-by-julie.html
6th. Renaissance and Neoclassical Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/renaissance-and-neoclassical-theory-and.html
7th. Romanticism Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/romanticism-theory-and-criticism-by.html
8th. Marxism Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/marxism-theory-and-criticism-by-julie.html
9th. Psychoanalysis Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/marxism-theory-and-criticism-by-julie.html
10th. Formalism Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/formalism-theory-and-criticism-by-julie.html
11th. Reader Response Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/reader-response-theory-and-criticism-by.html
12th. Structuralism and Semiotics Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/06/reader-response-theory-and-criticism-by.html
13th. Structuralism and Deconstruction Theory and Criticism @ http://www.dantealighierithedivinecomedy.com/2012/07/post-structuralism-and-deconstruction.html
14th. Feminism Theory and Criticism @ this publication.